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Comprehensive analysis: the total demand for cable materials will increase in the next few years

wire and cable products are mainly divided into four categories: power cable, overhead cable, communication cable and optical cable

special resins for wires and cables include cable insulating materials and cable sheathing materials. The main raw materials used are polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. At present, all domestic power cables above 6kV level have adopted polyethylene cross-linked insulating materials; The low-voltage cables below 1kV are mainly PVC insulated and PVC sheathed, but due to the poor stability and electrical insulation of PVC, they are increasingly replaced by polyethylene; Communication cables generally use high-density polyethylene as the insulation layer to encourage the development of short process steelmaking, and linear low-density polyethylene as the sheath layer; High density polyethylene and medium density polyethylene are mainly used as sheath materials for optical cables

in the mid-1990s, China has become the third largest wire and cable producer in the world after the United States and Japan. Relevant experts predict that in the next few years, with the urban power transformation and the implementation of "west to East power transmission" in the western development, China's wire and cable output will surpass Japan and become the second largest wire and cable producer in the world

at present, China has more than 3000 wire and cable manufacturing enterprises, most of which are small enterprises, mainly concentrated in the southeast coastal provinces. According to the survey, most cable factories produce not only power cables, but also communication cables and optical cables. In 2011, the total demand for polyethylene cable materials in China was 180 ~ 185kt. At present, the production of cable materials in China can be divided into several situations: first, the production of chemical industry enterprises. The representative enterprises are Shanghai chemical plant, Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical, Daqing Petrochemical and other enterprises. They all have cable material products and have their own market share in China

the other is that the cable factory produces cable materials by itself, basically for the purpose of self-sufficiency of the enterprise. There are also a small amount of export sales. There are many such enterprises. Zhengzhou Cable Factory, Beijing cable factory, Hebei Yongjin cable group and Tianjin Angel Group Co., Ltd. have their own cable material production workshops

the third kind is produced by professional cable material manufacturers

in recent years, China's cable material production enterprises have made great progress, especially some private enterprises, which comply with the market demand in terms of production scale, product structure adjustment and new product development. In terms of high-voltage cable materials, some international well-known companies still occupy the domestic market of cable materials

1.1 insulating materials for power cables

(1) power cables

power cables in China are mainly divided into three categories according to the withstand voltage grade: 1kV low-voltage cables, 10 ~ 35kV high-voltage cables, 110kV and above ultra-high-voltage cables. Among them, 1 ~ 35kV cables are in the largest demand. China has more than 100 cross-linked power cable production lines, one third of which can produce high-voltage cross-linked cables

power cable is a huge user of cable materials, and 2/3 of cable material manufacturers produce power cable insulation materials

for urban and rural electricity The market situation of the "two" transformed power cables has been optimistic in recent two years. The annual demand for 6 ~ 35kV medium voltage cables may reach about 35000 km. The 110kV EHV cables may reach about 800km. In foreign countries, the supply specification of 10kV cross-linked cables is 600mm, and that of 220kV cross-linked cables is 1000mm. However, the supply specification of 10kV cables in China is small, with a cross-sectional area of 150mm. If the specification is calculated with 3-core 150mm as the representative specification, the insulation and semiconductive shielding materials required for each kilometer of cables are about 1.1t, and The middle insulating material is 800kg, the inner semi conductive shielding material is 90kg, and the outer semi conductive shielding material is 210kg

in China, 1 ~ 10KV overhead insulated cables are widely used in power generation, with a number of tens of thousands of kilometers, and thousands of tons of silicon fired and irradiated XLPE products are consumed every year. Low voltage cables are mainly made of silicon burned cross-linked polyethylene. The current situation of silicon burned cross-linked polyethylene is that supply exceeds demand, and the annual output is about 50000 km. A relatively large production enterprise has an annual production capacity of 7000t in one production line

crosslinkable polyethylene is the main insulating material in the production of power cables in China. At present, the crosslinkable material for medium voltage cables (10kV level) can be self-sufficient in China, with an annual consumption of about 18000 ~ 22000t. In addition, the current demand for inner semiconductive shielding materials in China is about 2200t, and the demand for outer semiconductive shielding materials is 5000t

at present, China basically imports all the crosslinkable materials for high-voltage cables, and the consumption is about 1500 ~ 2000t per year. At present, several large groups of cable insulating materials have been formed in the world, such as the well-known United carbon and Nordic chemical groups, which have strong capital and technical force. At present, domestic cable enterprises and cable material enterprises are still in the state of decentralized operation, unable to form large enterprises and groups, and are facing difficulties in the fierce competition in the market. Judging from the current domestic insulating and shielding materials for 35kV and below medium voltage cables, the stability is poor and the quality is not guaranteed. Judging from the equipment level of the enterprise, many cable material enterprises lack technology and testing means. Some factories do not have rheological property measurement equipment, insulating material moisture testing equipment and impurity detection equipment. In foreign countries, these are the minimum detection devices. Large foreign companies have infrared spectrophotometer, mass spectrometer and other insulation structure analysis equipment, such as thermal differential scanning analysis equipment, to test the physical and chemical properties of insulating materials. Some large companies also have large-scale high-power electron microscope and other micro analysis equipment, with various new technologies and formulas. It should be said that if the products of Chinese cable material manufacturers enter the field of 110kV high-voltage cable insulation materials, they will enter the high-tech field of cable material industry. At present, the demand for 110kV cables in China is about 500km/year, which can reach 800km/year this year. About 2.5t ultra clean insulating material is required for each kilometer of cables, which has good technical and economic benefits. If some domestic insulating material factories with a good foundation and large foreign companies jointly operate, and use foreign technology and funds to develop and produce EHV cable materials, it is possible to accelerate the localization process of medium and high voltage insulating materials

in 2010, the polyethylene cable material required for power cables and overhead insulated cables in China was about 73kt. At present, China is at the peak of urban and rural power transformation, and the demand for cross-linked power cables is close to the peak. Therefore, the total demand for cable materials will not increase much in the next 2 to 3 years. However, considering that the process of replacing PVC with low-voltage polyethylene cable insulating material will be accelerated, the total demand for polyethylene power cable material in China will still increase in the next few years, with an estimated growth rate of 8% ~ 10%

① 1kV low-voltage cables

1kv XLPE insulated cables are manufactured by many manufacturers, most of which are small factories. At present, more than 90% of domestic 1kV power cables still use PVC insulation. Europe and the United States and other developed countries have banned the use of PVC insulated cables in tall buildings and public places in the early 1980s. Silane crosslinked polyethylene cables will be widely used in urban power transformation in China as early as more than ten years ago. Some large domestic power supply bureaus (such as Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin) have expressly stipulated that PVC plastic cables will no longer be used in power distribution. Therefore, the demand for low-voltage silane crosslinked cables will increase greatly

② 10 ~ 35kV high voltage cable

the domestic production capacity of 10 ~ 35kV cross-linked polyethylene insulated cable is very large, with more than 100 production lines, which is basically produced by chemical cross-linking method

③ 110kV and above EHV cables

there are 29 domestic production lines of 110kV and above XLPE insulated cables, with an annual production capacity of 4000km In 1999, due to the urban power transformation, the annual output of 110kV XLPE insulated cable jumped to 800km, and will stabilize to about 1000km per year in the next few years. All insulating materials for 110kV and above XLPE insulated cables in China are currently imported. The domestic supply of sheath materials has been accessible. Generally, GH type black high-density polyethylene sheath materials conforming to GB are used. At present, the demand for 110kV and above XLPE insulated cable materials is about 1kt

④ overhead cables

overhead cables are divided into 1kV and 10kV. 10KV overhead cables mainly use cross-linked polyethylene insulation, and 1kV overhead cables mainly use PVC. There are about 150 10KV overhead cable production plants in China, most of which are produced by chemical crosslinking. The demand for overhead polyethylene cable materials in 2011 is about 20kt

(2) communication cables since the late 1980s, with the construction of domestic local telephones, the communication cable manufacturing industry has expanded rapidly. So far, 230 production lines have been introduced, with line speeds ranging from 600 to 2000m/min. With more than 400 domestic production lines, the production capacity has exceeded 90million pairs of kilometers, and the production capacity has been surplus

the market consumption of communication cables in China is 70million pairs of kilometers. With 800000 boxes (4 pairs) of high-speed data transmission cables, the total consumption of communication cable insulation is about 49kt. The communication cable sheath is calculated as 5T per 10000 pairs of kilometers, and the market demand for communication cable sheath material is about 35kt

at present, about 84kt of polyethylene cable material is required for the insulation and sheath of communication cables in China. In the next few years, as local telephone cables are gradually replaced by optical cables, the market demand for common communication polyethylene cable materials will gradually decrease, but the high-speed data transmission cable materials will continue to increase

(3) optical cable sheath

China's optical cable construction is in a period of rapid development. There are more than 200 optical cable manufacturers in China. In 2011, the national demand for optical cables was 410000 km long. Based on 80kg polyethylene sheath material per kilometer, the demand for optical cable sheath material in China in 2011 is about 35kt. At present, optical cable sheath materials are mainly produced and supplied domestically

1.2 insulating materials for electrical equipment lines

in various engineering construction, the consumption of flame-retardant cables is gradually increasing, and fire-resistant cables are also included in the fire protection specifications. Power cables, control cables, signal cables, instrument cables, computer cables, thermocouple cables, etc. are required to be flame-retardant. In recent years, the fire departments in some regions have required to use halogen flame-retardant materials, so low smoke halogen materials are the development direction. At present, the large amount of low smoke halogen thermoplastic sheathing material is used, and a small amount of crosslinkable sheathing material is used. This manufacturing path can also be supplemented or combined correspondingly. Besides, there are some projects with high requirements. The cable insulation requires crosslinkable low smoke halogen materials. At present, the vast majority of low smoke halogen sheathing materials are imported materials, and their localization requirements are still the subject that domestic cable material manufacturers should study. It is estimated that the annual consumption in the near future can reach about 1000t. Due to the wide range of use of wires and cables for electrical equipment, users' requirements for equipment wires are diverse, and users' requirements for use are 100% transferred to the requirements for cable materials

(1) mechanical motor connecting cable, automobile low-voltage cable, locomotive and vehicle wire, oil platform cable, etc. have different performance requirements, such as tensile strength, elongation at break, etc

(2) flame retardant properties include flame retardant or non flame retardant, halogen-containing or halogen-free, smoke density, etc

(3) insulation performance includes aging temperature and index, insulation thickness, volume resistance coefficient, etc

(4) process properties include tear and peel properties

(5) fracture resistance under very bad mine working conditions, the outer insulation layer of mining cables is required to have a certain mechanical strength

(6) other properties include scratch resistance, oil resistance, ultra-thin, etc

these indicators restrict each other. One brand cannot meet all product requirements. In fact, there is no universal brand. The temperature grades of such wires and cables can be considered as 90 ℃, 105 ℃, 125 ℃, 135 ℃ and 150 ℃. Chemical performance focuses on improving oil resistance, and mechanical performance focuses on improving breaking resistance

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